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儿童肉瘤的免疫治疗

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发表于 2015-11-1 22:34:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
儿童肉瘤的免疫治疗
儿科肉瘤是一组骨与软组织的起源的异质性恶性肿瘤。虽然有超过100种不同的组织学亚型已经被描述,但是主要的儿科肿瘤属于尤文家族肿瘤,骨肉瘤和横纹肌肉瘤。大多数的病人目前使用手术/化疗,暂时是可控的。然而,那些被诊断为转移性或者经历复发的病人,会有一个非常糟糕的预后治疗。这些患者迫切需要新的治疗方法。免疫疗法是治疗体液和实体肿瘤的一种治疗方式,在儿科中最为显著的是神经母细胞瘤和骨肉瘤。在过去,免疫调节剂如干扰素,白细胞介素-2,与脂质体胞壁酰三肽磷脂酰乙醇胺都试过了,在一些患者亚群中看到抗癌活性的;此外,研究也发现,各种癌症疫苗也可能会有效益。在儿童肿瘤治疗中,用单克隆抗体针对肿瘤抗原,例如双唾液酸神经节苷脂GD2,或者免疫检查靶点CTLA-4和PD-1,正在积极的探索中。过继T细胞治疗EBV相关淋巴瘤的构建成功,使用嵌合抗原受体改造T细胞(CAR-T)和双抗的治疗方案发展迅速,是治疗肉瘤非常有潜力的方案。本篇综述将集中在近期的临床前和临床进展,靶向治疗小儿肉瘤,重点在免疫检查点,免疫编辑,肿瘤微环境,抗体工程,细胞工程,和肿瘤疫苗。将来,将抗体为基础和细胞为基础的治疗方案将会结合,作为整体的治疗肉瘤的方案。
关键词:CAR-T,肿瘤免疫治疗,抗体,单克隆抗体,细胞,肿瘤疫苗,自然杀伤细胞,骨肉瘤
Immunotherapy of childhood Sarcomas
Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing’s family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and liposomal-muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiologyof immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody-based and cellbased therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed.
Keywords: pediatric sarcoma, immunotherapy of cancer, antibodies, monoclonal, CAR T cells, tumor vaccines, natural killer cells, osteosarcoma

 楼主| 发表于 2015-11-2 22:36:13 | 显示全部楼层
爱康得生物医学技术(苏州)有限公司,专注免疫治疗。
更多资讯,请关注http://www.icartab.com.cn/company_overview.html
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