Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy
Keywords: immunotherapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), exosomes, cancer therapy, extracellular vesicles
Received: August 12, 2015 Accepted: October 06, 2015 Published: October 19, 2015
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production.
As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events.As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer.
It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable.