Reprogramming the tumor microenvironment to enhance adoptive cellular therapy.
The frontiers of cancer immunotherapy are extending in terms of both the range of cancer types that can potentially be targeted and the types of therapeutics that are in clinical development. The use of adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) and its derivative, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, is currently limited to hematological malignancies and immunogenic cancers such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Although ACT utilizing ex vivo expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or engineered CAR/TCR T cells have undergone clinical trials for other solid cancers, their efficacy to date has been limited. This may be due, in part, to the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment. The development of novel combination approaches which target the immunosuppressive network engineered by tumors has raised the possibility of using ACT for a broader range of cancers. This review summarizes the potential of such strategies and outlines the clinical relevance of these observations.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adoptive cellular therapy; Cancer; Chimeric antigen receptor; Immunosuppression; Immunotherapy
关键词：Adoptive cellular therapy; Cancer; Chimeric antigen receptor; Immunosuppression; Immunotherapy肿瘤；嵌合抗原受体；免疫抑制；免疫疗法