Beginning of a novel frontier: T-cell directed immune manipulation in lymphomas.
Checkpoint inhibitors with monoclonal antibodies targeting the CTLA-4 or PD-1 axis have revolutionized treatment in some solid tumours, especially melanoma and lung. The role of the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways and their inhibition in lymphoma may be different compared to solid tumours. In heavily pre-treated Hodgkin lymphoma, PD-1 directed treatment has led to high remission rates. Several studies are now conducted also including diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma. Beside antibody-based immunotherapy, treatment with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells has also come back to the focus of recent studies. Clinical evidence of CAR T-cell treatment in B-cell malignancies is limited to small series, because of the dedicated resources needed. However, impressive response rates have been observed, but toxicities associated with cytokine release can be very severe and fatal. We herein review background, early clinical evidence and future perspectives of T-cell directed immune manipulation for lymphomas including checkpoint inhibitors and CAR T-cell therapies.
Anti PD-1 treatment; CAR; Chimeric antibody receptor; Immunotherapy; Ipilimumab; Lymphoma; Nivolumab; Pembrolizumab; Pidilizumab; Review; T-cells