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癌症的主动免疫治疗

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发表于 2016-1-25 09:58:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Active Immunotherapy of Cancer.
Clinical progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy has been slow for many years but within the last 5 years, breakthrough successes have brought immunotherapy to the forefront in cancer therapy. Promising results have been observed in a variety of cancers including solid tumors and hematological malignancies with adoptive cell therapy using natural host tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, host cells that have been genetically engineered with antitumor T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors, immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy. However, most treatment modalities have shown limited efficacy with single therapy. The complex nature of cancer with intra- and inter-tumor antigen and genomic heterogeneity coupled with the immune suppressive microenvironment emphasizes the prospect of personalized targeted immunotherapy to manipulate the patient's own immune system against cancer. For successful, robust and long-lasting cure of cancer, a multi-modal approach is essential, combining anti-tumor cell therapy with manipulation of multiple pathways in the tumor microenvironment to ameliorate tumor-induced immunosuppression.
癌症的主动免疫治疗
癌症免疫治疗的临床过程在很多年内都进展缓慢,但是最近5年内,癌症免疫治疗取得了重大突破,使得免疫治疗又进入癌症治疗的前沿。在很多癌症,包括实体肿瘤和血液肿瘤的治疗中,使用过继细胞治疗技术,包括自然宿主肿瘤浸润淋巴细胞、抗肿瘤T细胞受体或者嵌合抗原受体修饰的宿主细胞、免疫检查点抑制物如抗CTLA-4、抗PD-1或者PD-L1单克隆抗体和溶瘤病毒为基础的免疫抑制。然而,大多数治疗方式单独使用时都显示出了有效的疗效。肿瘤与肿瘤内的肿瘤抗原和基因组的复杂性,再加上免疫抑制微环境的复杂性,增加了个性化靶向免疫治疗的重要性,需要使用患者自身免疫系统对抗癌症。为了能够成功的,强大的和持久的治疗癌症,多模式的治疗方法是必不可少的,需要使用多种方式改善肿瘤导致的免疫抑制。
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